Ethics of priivacy and surveillance

United Nations While few would object in principle to the authorities observing genuine criminals or dangerous conspirators, defining these is not a simple matter.

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Openness regarding data collection can also help bring accountability to the data collectors; since it comes with an address, responsible behavior on their part may be more likely as a result.

Or in a Washington DC case of Hitchcock's Rear Window meets the 90s, rotating cameras used to monitor traffic may focus on high rise apartment buildings during slack traffic hours near bedtime.

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Individuals may not discover the invalidity and the cost of increasing validity may be deemed to be too great. Certainly this is not an issue to run to the barricades over, but it does suggest the kind of subtle manners question that the purchasers of databases ought to consider.

These may of course overlap as when a system of retinal eye pattern identification to which persons consent automatically results in access or its denial.

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Active engagement of the community may involve meetings with community leaders, focus group discussions, and other forums that provide an opportunity for members to clearly express their values and concerns. This involves expectations about social roles such as a doctor, lawyer, or member of the clergy who violates confidentiality, a family member or friend who reveals secrets, or a bureaucrat who fails to seal or destroy confidential records when that is required. Similarly we assume that things that are discarded in the garbage will in fact disappear and not be claimed by information scavengers. But much of the time the harm is to an impersonal and the damage done is symbolic. Given the aforementioned harms of surveillance, there must be a good reason as to why this person or group should be exposed to those harms. This is not to suggest that under certain conditions and for certain ends they may not on balance be appropriate. In addition "opting in" symbolically shows greater respect for the person. Right to challenge and express a grievance: are there procedures for challenging the results, or for entering alternative data or interpretations into the record? As we move from data entered into a computer by an operator at a terminal to remote automatic entries based on visual, auditory and biometric forms of data, questions over the appropriateness of the initial data collection will become increasingly important. The new technologies require new cultural standards and public policies even as they offer wonderful possibilities. Without such a mechanism, it is unclear how we could be said to contribute our labor to the formation of the data in question, and therefore how we could own or have rights to that data. This is reversed from your perspective, leading to the tension of balancing privacy against security. Douglas has written that the Constitution and the Bill of Rights "

By the same cards were being used by 39 government agencies for reasons as diverse as collecting parcels from the post office to routine police enquiries. She held that there are no privacy rights which do not overlap with clusters of other rights, and so there is no distinct right to privacy.

The result is that anyone falling into these categories is more likely to be caught if doing something wrong than someone else, thus perpetuating the stereotype.

Where a less than ideal means is preferred we need to ask "Are other less costly means available?

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We also need to be alert to the possibility that the publicly-stated goals may mask other less desirable goals. This involves assumptions about the compartmentalization or isolation of elements of personal biography including the past and the future and information in different locations.

Orwell, G.

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The Ethics (or not) of Massive Government Surveillance